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Four tones? Characters? Pinyin? Ok, I’m a beginner!

alicezhang 2016-01-07 4876

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零基础的大学生,怎么学习汉语?

For overseas students with zero-based mandarin, how to start mandarin learning?

    来到中国的留学生大部分都会开始学习汉语,但是最初的汉语学习千万不要随意地开始,一定要跟着专业的老师开始学习,因为最开始是打发音基础的时候,发音习惯一旦形成就很难更改,如果跟着一个不专业的老师进行学习,或者是跟着一个普通的中国人学习,后期的发音问题会很多。

    Most overseas students will begin learning mandarin but I’d like to recommend you guys not to start your study casually. Instead you need to follow a professional Chinese teacher because it is very important to form a good pronunciation habit at the very beginning or it will be very hard to correct your pronunciation. If you follow an unprofessional teacher or a common Chinese, there will be a lot of pronunciation problems in the future. 

那么怎么制定具体的学习计划呢?

So how to make a detailed study plan?

第一步:选择适合的教材

Step one: Choose appropriate textbooks

    一般在各个高校中,学校都会指定固定的汉语学习教材供学生使用,现在被广泛使用的汉语教材如下

    Generally many schools will arrange settled Mandarin textbooks for students. Some commonly used textbooks are as follows:

① 综合汉语(For Integrated Chinese)

    《汉语教程》、《博雅汉语》、《新实用汉语课本》、《我的汉语教室》   

② 汉字(For Chinese Characters)

    《张老师教汉字》、其他综合汉语课本配套的汉字教材

③ 口语(For Oral Chinese)

    《汉语口语速成》《汉语会话301句》


第二步:开始学习

    Step two: Begin your Mandarin learning

第一阶段:拼音学习

    将来汉语发音地不地道此阶段最重要,所以一定要找一个发音标准的老师带你入门哦

   In the first phase: Learn Pinyin (This phrase will decide whether your pronunciation is authentic in the future, so you need to follow a professional Chinese teacher.)

为你定制12个小时轻松学汉语拼音计划

A 12-hour study plan for Pinyin.

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发音小技巧举例

Tips for pronunciation

例如:如何发ü(How to pronounce ü?)

Step one:大家一定会发i这个音。

Step one:Everyone can pronounce i, right?


Step two:在发i的时候,将嘴唇圆起来,就可以把ü发出来了。

Step twoWhen pronouncing i, you should round up your lip, then you can get ü.


第二阶段:开始系统汉语学习之旅


    In the second phase: Start systematically your Mandarin learning

⒈ 学习生词 Master new words

    ① 记忆单词 Memorize the new words

    ② 用所记忆的单词造句子(只记忆单词是没用的哦)

       Make sentences by your memorized words(use the new words only)

造什么句子:以场景为主,仔细想想平时都要做什么,每一个场景需要用到哪些句子,每个句子每个句子的学习、扩展

What sentences can you make? Mainly based on scenes. Think carefully about what you will do in daily life and for different scenes, what sentences you will use. Just study sentence by sentence, then expand these sentences.


如何学好每一个句子

How to master every sentence?

☉要达到学了一个句子会说无数个句子

You can master many sentences after mastering one sentence.


比如:

师傅,我去南京东路。

    可以分为:“师傅,我去”  和“南京东路”两个部分

    “南京东路”可以被替换成其他的任何地方

    替换成:“师傅,我去东方明珠。”“师傅,我去上海马戏城。”

For example:

Sir, I want to go to East Nanjing Road.

This sentence can be divided into two parts, including “师傅,我去”and “南京东路”.

You can replace “南京东路” with any other places.

Such as, Sir, I want to go to the the Oriental Pearl Tower.

Sir, I want to to to Shanghai circus city.


你叫什么名字?

可以分为:“你”和“叫什么名字?”两个部分

“你“可以被替换成任何的人

替换成:他叫什么名字?

那个女孩儿叫什么名字?

你朋友叫什么名字?


①  语法学习

不要干巴巴的学习语法,要在场景中去发现语法、应用语法、扩展语法,这样才能将语法学好

如:学习位置移动的把字句Sb/Sth + 把 + Sb/Sth + verb +other

    你同学的书在桌子上,你想让他将书放到他的书包里,怎么办?

    造句:你把书放到书包里。

同理其他的任何东西想换位置都要用把字句

    如:你把画挂到墙上。

    你把椅子放到左边。


②  场景化课文学习

每学完一个场景就要出去应用,如刚学习完买咖啡,下课后试着去咖啡厅买一杯咖啡。

      


第三阶段:学习跟自己的学习、工作息息相关的内容


Finally you need to learn what is related to your major and work.

在此阶段要做3件事

A.      储备专业词汇

B.      选定话题每日坚持说15分钟汉语(用口语练习app或者和中国人说)

C.      扩大中国人的朋友圈,让自己有更多的机会说汉语



第四个阶段:接触更深层次的中国文化,融入中国社会


要了解: 中国人为什么这么谦虚?

中国人为什么不喜欢4?

儒家思想,道家思想是什么?等等。

          怎么做:看中国的影视剧、娱乐节目、新闻等

  

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